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THE Jfi3



Vol. XXII, Part I

20th January, 1967


Whitmore, T. C. : Notes on the Systematy of Solomon Islands'

Plants and some of their New Guinea Relatives, 1— VII Markgraf, F.: Ibid, VIII and IX Van Royen, P. : Ibid, X -

Holttum, R. E. & B. M. Allen: The Tree-ferns of Malaya - Green, S.: Notes on the distribution of Nepenthes species in

Singapore - Holttum, R. E.: Isaac Henry Burkill, 1870-1965 Burkill, H. M.: Ibid, a bibliography -

J. P. & H. M. B. : H. B. Gilliland, 1911-1965, an appreciation Hsuann Keng: Observations on Ancistrocladus tectorius Turner, G. J.: New records of plant diseases in Sarawak for the year 1965 -

Page 1

23 33 41

53 67 71 107 113


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Vol. XXII, Part I 20th January, 1967

Notes on the Systematy of Solomon Islands' Plants and some of their New Guinea Relatives, I— VII


T. C. Whitmore Forest Botanist, British Solomon Islands*


This paper adds to the bonfire of optimically proposed 'paper-species whose incineration is inevitable following a critical examination of the abundant collections now available from Malesia and Melanesia.

The amount of mophological variation differs from group to group studied. Several classes may be distinguished and interpreted as stages in the evolution of species, as follows :

J. Homogeneous groups, without morphological discontinuities; previously optimistically divided :

(a) Campnosperma brass ii reduced to C. brevipetiolata (p. 4).

(b) 3 Syzygiums transferred to Eugenia (p. 16).

(c) Calophyllum kiong reduced to C. soulattri (p. 15).

(d) 2 spp. reduced to Tristiropsis acutangula (p. 17).

(<?) Gmelina salomonensis reduced to G. moluccana (p. 18).

2. Evolution to a wide range of habitats but morphologically uniform, various Calophyllums (p. 13).

3. 'Ochlospecies', i.e. a group showing complex reticulate variation which cannot be treated taxonomically :

4 spp. reduced to Scht'zomeria serrata (p. 5).

4. Widespread polymorphic species with variously distinct local popula- tions :

(a) Buchanania arborescens (p. 2); of which B. novo-hibernica and

B. solomonensis are synonyms.

(b) Pometia pinnata (p. 17).

5. Closely related but distinct allopatric species pairs:

(a) Campnosperma brevipetiolata and C. auriculata (p. 4).

(b) Endospermum medullosum and E. malaccense (p. 8).

* Now at: Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Selangor, Mal ty.i.


Gardens Bulletin, Singapore XXI I (1967)


I have found it necessary in connection with the preparation of a 'Guide to the Forests of the Solomon Islands' (Whitmore 1966, pp. 208, Oxford University Press) to investigate the taxo- nomy of a number of the common, big trees of the archipelago. These trees are important components of the rain-forests and some of them have already or soon will enter commerce. For both the student of ecology and the forester a sound taxonomic base is essential. In these notes are set out the results of my studies.

In the Solomons, as in Malesia, it is being discovered that many formerly recognised species cannot be maintained now that abundant collections from many localities are to hand. Earlier botanists, with few collections from widely separate localities, saw distinct species where now various patterns of morphological variation are revealed which show different stages in the evolution of species (see summary). The early splitting was aided by a firm preconception in the minds of the investigators of the richness of tropical floras. Thus many of these notes follow the current trend and involve the reduction of local ''endemics" to synonymy with the earliest described species of each group. In each case I have pursued the problem as far as necessary to provide what I hope will prove a stable name for the Solomons' taxon, a name which future monographers will uphold. The implications of this reduction of "species" for our conception of the Malesian and Melanesian floras and on plant geography are huge and important, and the time is coming when a reassessment must be made.

The notes are based mainly on the set of specimens retained in the Forest Hebarium Honiara, BSIP. Replicates are at K, L, LAE. SING and US; the last two sets are incomplete.

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the substantial assistance I have received at Lae and Leiden with this work; in addition Kew. British Museum, Singapore and Brisbane have kindly allowed me to use their facilities and loaned me material for examination. Dr. B. C. Stone kindly read a draft of this paper.

Professor H. Godwin F.R.S. very kindly allowed me to work in the Cambridge University Botany School to complete these studies.

I. Anacardiaceae A. Buchanania Roxburgh

There grows in the Solomons a species of Buchanania as a scattered component of disturbed lowland rain-forest. It is a tree of moderate size in the upper canopy and reaches about 6 ft. girth and 120 ft. tall, with a tall, narrow, dense crown. It is easily recognisable in the forest from various features (Whitmore 1966); and diagnostic is its red middle bark (phelloderm) revealed when the papery superficial outer bark (phellem) is scraped off.

Whitmore Solomon Islands Plants


In considering the name of this species 1 have examined the following diagnostic features of all collections at Lae from the Solomons and Bismarcks. The leaf apices are acute, sometimes acuminate or, uncommonly, obtuse; both acute and obtuse leaves are sometimes found on a single twig (BS1P 1472). The petiole length varies from 15-50 mm.; on a single tree the variation between leaves is about 10 mm. There are from 15-15 pairs of secondary nerves whose spacing varies and whose parallelness increases with closeness; they run more or less parallel towards the margin but loop upwards well within it. The inflorescences are commonly tomentose on the minor axes and have scattered hairs on the main axes, sometimes they are almost glabrous but only on BS1P 315 and BSIP 1087 could no hairs at all be found. The carpels are hairy all over, or, more commonly, are glabrous on the exposed side and hairy on the inner sides, the degree of hairiness varies considerably but no completely glabrous carpels were seen.

This Buchanania fits B. solornonensis Merr. et Perry (J. Am. Arb. 22, 530-1, 1941, based on Kajewski 1873 type, 2123 and Brass 2745 which is the only species so far recorded from the Solo- mons. I have seen an isotype at the British Museum; it matches my own collections. Merrill and Perry based their species on three fruiting collections. The remnants of a flower were found attached to one of the fruits, and within this flower lies the only stated difference from B. novo-hibernica Ltb. (Bot. Jahrb. 65, 349, 1921). namely the gynoecium is pubescent not glabrous. In view of the variation in hairiness of the carpels in my collections 1 do not consider this character alone enough to establish a new species and 1 cannot discover others in the descriptions. Accordingly I consider B. solornonensis to be the same as B. novo-hibernica. Unfortunately this decision . mUst be made without seeing the type and only cited collection of B. novo-hibernica (Peekel 812) which appears to have been lost; but I have examined both the figure in Peekel's manuscript flora (Nachtr. 84-5) and the descrip- tion, which he bases on many observations of living material, of what he describes as a very common species, and can see no difference between B. solornonensis and B. novo-hibernica.

Lauterbach based B. novo-hibernica on a single collection. In the same paper he mentions B. arborescens Bl. (Mus. Bot. Lugd. - Batav., 183, 1826), a widespread polymorphic species, which he calls B. florida Schauer. Unfortunately he does not give a dia- gnosis for B. arborescens and the differences from B. novo- hibernica must be taken from his key. There is in fact only one, namely side nerves 'unter sich siemlich parallel' versus 'nicht parallel'. This is a very slight distinction (see above) which I consider inadequate to maintain two species, so B. novo-hibernica becomes a synonym of B. arborescens.

There is a number of species described since B. arborescens in this group. In W. Malesia I note solely B. lucida Bl. which appears superficially very similar from the many sheets at Kew.


Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore XXI/ (1967}

In Queensland, E. Malesia and Melanesia are B. fiorida Schauer, B. mangold es F. Muell.*, B. longifolia Span.*, B. montana Ltb.*,

B. nabirensis Kan. et Hat.*, B. monticola Kan. et Hat.*, B. papuana

C. T. White* and B. vitiensis Engl, (from Fiji). I have examined at Kew and /or Leiden (on loan from Bogor) type or authentic collections of the species starred (*) and descriptions of all those listed. It appears to me that we are dealing with a single, wide- ranging, polymorphic species with local morphological variants which may or may not be distinct enough to be considered separate species. The problem must await a monographer. As far as the Solomons and Bismarcks are concerned however it looks as though the regional variants, B. novo-hibernica and B. solomonen- sis, are not sufficiently distinct from each other or from the main plexus to be given specific rank and I think they can both be considered as part of B. arborescens.

BSIP 1656 from Vanikoro, Santa Cruz Islands, matches the type, viewed at Kew, of B. attenuata A. C. Smith, from Fiji. This appears distinct from B. arborescens which has not been collected from the Santa Cruz islands yet.

Buchanania specimens examined from Solomons and Bismarcks

SOLOMONS (BSIP series unless indicated otherwise). Bougainville Kajewski 1873, 2123. Choiseul 4038, 5215. Rob Roy 5311.

New Georgia Islands Baga 1327, 1375 Kolombangara 1472 New Georgia 275, 3277, 4701, Water house 227 Gizo 3046. 5636 Gatukai 315 Vangunu 915, 948, 983.

Guadalcanal 49, 745, 786, 1072, 1087, 1137, 2558.

Malaita 71, 3442, 3496, 4457.

Santa Ysabel 2479, 2627, 2737, 3614. 4075.

San Cristobal 4276.

BISMARKS. New Britain NGF 1838, NGF 10067.

B. Campnosperma Thwaites

C. brevipetiolata Volkens Bot. Jahrb. 31, 446, 1902. C. brassii Merr. et Perry J. Arn. Arb. 22, 535, 1941.

The type and only collection of C. brassii, Brass 3355, comes from Santa Ysabel, Garona. 1 revisited this locality and with some difficulty penetrated the coastal swamp on to the foothills where, as Brass states, it is a conspicuous tree. Brass 3355 (isotype from Brisbane viewed on loan) has leaves very hairy below and has dried a rich chestnut brown. The very many collections we have now made of C. brevipetiolata have variable tomentum on the

Whit more Solomon Islands' Plants


lower leaf surface but some sheets including the collection from Garona are as hairy as C. brassii. As my material was all collected into spirit, using Mr. Womersley's technique, and Brass's was dried in the field the colour of the specimen is not significant. In all other respects C. brassii is identical with C. brevipetiolata. Like so many of the species founded by Merrill and Perry on one or two collections this 'Solomons' endemic' is revealed for what it is and must be sunk into synonymy with a widespread species.

C. brevipetiolata is very similar in the herbarium to C. auriculata Hk. f. of western Malesia, also a species of disturbed places. The two species look rather different in the forest, inter alia young trees of C. auriculata have very much bigger leaves. Pending a monographic study I prefer to leave the two distinct.

II. Cunoniaceae

Schizomeria D. Don

Schizomeria serrata Hochreutiner Ann. Cons. Jarb. Bot Geneve 10, 188, 1907.

5. floribunda Schlechter Bot. Jahrb. 52, 156, 1915.

S. pulleana O. C. Schmidt Nova Guinea 14, 150, 1924.

5. brassii Mattfeld J. Arn. Arb. 20,435, 1939.

S. whitei Mattfeld loc. cit. 435-6.

In the lowland rain-forests of the Solomons is a Schizomeria. It is a variable tree and the problems are whether it is one or more species and then what to call it. The bark varies from smooth to scaly to fissured, a wide range for a single species, and there is considerable variation in the characters of herbarium specimens.

From twenty-six collections we have made in B.S.I.P. great variation can be seen in leaf margin, leaf base, inflorescence size and shape. Concerning leaf characters, at one extreme are collec- tions with lanceolate, cuneate-based, closely serrate leaves (BSIP 313, 1225, 1397, 1455, 2891, 3565) and at the other extreme collections with broadly ovate, round-based, crenate leaves (BSIP 308, 1144, 2764, 4050). There is a series between these extremes, and some collections even have both cuneate and round-based leaves (BSIP 1144, 2764, 4050, 5613); nor is there a sharp dis- junction between serrate and crenate margin. Concerning inflore- scence characters the panicle varies very much in size. At one extreme are BSIP 976, 1225, 1397, 2748 with compact panicles less than 3 cm. cross and these are connected via BSIP 2764 5269, 5270 with panicles 10 cm. long x 7 cm. across to the very large open panicles of BSIP 1144, 18x15 cm. There are inter- mediates between these stages. There is a rough but not invariable correlation between the series or spectrum of leaf characters and those of the inflorescence. However it also appears to matter how


Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore XXII (1967)

mature the inflorescence was at collection, the flowers on the compact inflorescences are mostly in bud suggesting that these are young and would later have expanded. Concerning fruit shape, one collection, BSIP 3140, has spherical fruits, some. BSIP 893, 976, 2891, 3383, 3565, 5613, NGF 8445, have ellipsoidal fruits, and a few collections have both spherical and ellipsoidal fruits, BSIP 821, 1328, 1397, 4050. Fruit shape is not correlated with the other characters described and probably depends on degree of maturity. The fruits sometimes reach 15 mm. long but are usually 8-10 mm. In none of these three series of characters are there sharp disjunctions and the series are not correlated with geography.

The petals have fallen off the open flowers of all collections examined. The flowers vary in size, from 1-3 mm. across but only reach 2-3 mm. when the fruit has begun to develop (BSIP 1144).

Because the various characters vary fairly independently of each other and are each and every one connected by intermediate stages I think all these collections must be placed in a single species.

White (in 'Taxonomy and Geography', 1962 p. 79 et seq.) has coined the useful and appropriate term ochlospecies (Gr. oklos-an irregular crowd, a mob; also 'trouble', 'annoyance') for species showing a complex reticulate pattern of variation of this kind and in which the morphological disjunctions are insufficient for us to recognise taxonomic categories. In the Buchanania arborescens group analysed above morphological differentiation has proceeded further to produce distinct local forms which can be given taxono- mic status. In other words evolution has gone further in the Buchanania arborescens group than in Schizomeria serrata.

Several species of Schizomeria have been described which all fit our material. At Kew I have examined authentic material of the following species of this group.

S. serrata: Hochreutiner 103 (isotype); also two recent collections from same tree (VII a 12 at Bogor): Soepadmo 10, 23.xi.59 (sheet also at Lae); Rastini 164, 14.iii.60.

5. floribunda: Ledermann 9763 (isotype), Ledermann 9664.

5. pulleana: Lam 1474 (isotype).

5. brassii: Brass 713 (isotype).

S. whitei: Kajewski 1336 (isotype) 1135.

The characters on which these species have been differentiated are mainly those demonstrated above to vary more or less independently and continuously. The collections from the Solomons cover the whole range of morphological variation of all these species. I have also examined twenty-one collections from New Guinea and the Moluccas; they all appear similar. Now that abundant material is available I do not think any of these species can be maintained, the formerly perceived disjunctions break down.

Whitrnore Solomon Islands Plants


I conclude that the wide-ranging lowland Schizomeria of Sahul- land is probably best regarded as one polymorphic species for which the earliest name is S. serrata Hochr. and that S. floribunda, S. pulleana, S. brassii, and S. whitei must be reduced to synonmy now. In all probability when material can be traced S. katastega Mattf. (J. Arn. Arb. 20, 434, 1939), S. tegens Mattf. (loc. cit.) and S. homaliijormis Kan. et Hat. (Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 56, 109, 1942) they will also prove synonymous.

Two further observations must be made:

(a) S. pulleana is said to differ from S. floribunda in various of the features demonstrated inconstant above but also in possessing longer and irregularly 3-lobed petals. However as the petals are early caducous in Schizomeria this character cannot be considered satisfactory or adequate to uphold a species.

(b) S. serrata: the type and the figure in Ic. Bog. 3, t. 228, 68-70, 1907 have big lanceolate leaves about three times as long as broad whereas S. floribunda usually has ovate leaves about twice las long as broad. The difference is so striking that I at first was inclined to keep the species separate, but BSIP 1397, 1455, 2891, 3565 and 4731 have lanceolate leaves, although rather smaller than the type of S. serrata. Finally however I viewed Rastini 164 from the type tree of S. serrata and this has both shapes of leaves on a single specimen. The flowers of this tree are only 2-3 mm. across on the specimens although Hochreutiner states them to be 7-8 mm. diam. The biggest dried fruit is 15 x 12 mm., about the same size as that of S. floribunda. Thus the material, but not his description, falls within the range of all the other species in the group. I take it he must have viewed and described living specimens.

Schizomeria serrata material examined at Kew and /or Lae, loci from west to east; in addition to authentic material listed above.

Moluccas Solea bb 28867.

Morotai Kostermans 996, 1081, 1084, 1205, 1278. Ambon Robinson 603, Teysmann s.n. (cult, in Hort. Bog.)

NEW GUINEA West W. New Guinea Div. BW 4472, 5781, 7604 Hollandia Div. BW 7995 Biak Dijk 914

East Morobe Distr. NGF 3145, 8445, 19045 Sepik Ledermann 9664

Papua Sorong Pleyte 996 Sogeri NGF 4200 Garitar Brass 713 Misima Isl. Brass 27534, 27653 Oriomo R. Brass 5804

8 Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore XX 11 (1967)

BISMARCKS New Britain NGF 1893

SOLOMONS (BSIP series unless indicated otherwise) Bougainville Voyce B3, D8; Water house K 733 Choiseul 4050, 5269, 5270 Rob Roy 5343, 5356

New Georgia Islands Baga 1328, 2891 Gizo 5613 Kolombangara 821, 1397, 1455 New Georgia 3140, 3789, 4731, 4765 Vangunu 155, 893, 976, 1225

Santa Ysabel 2748, 2764, 3565, Brass 3428

Guadalcanal Tina 1105, 1144, Rere 308, 313, 3383

III. Euphorbiaceae

Endospermum Bentham

Endospermum niedullosum L. S. Smith Proc. R. Soc. Oueensl. 58, 53, 1947.

Endospermum malaccense Muell. Arg.* Flora 47, 469, 1864.

The common lowland Solomons tree A'asa (Kwara'ae) has been called E. medullosum from Walker's early collections (BSIP 97, 304), determined at Brisbane, onwards. It is a perfect match for the abundant collections at Lae, including the type and other sheets cited by Smith. The species is distinctive in forest and herbarium.

I have examined at Kew the type of E. malaccense (Griffith 4721) and Maingay 1392 which also is cited in the Tflanzenreich* account, as well as many old and recent western Malesian gather- ings. E. medullosum is extremely similar to this species and sterile trees are indistinguishable. Smith makes it clear that he saw no western Malesian material when he discribed his species. There is a slight yet consistent difference in the inflorescence and flower stalk, which can be summarised as a key:

Male and female inflorescences paniculate; branches often them- selves branching;; branch systems usually at least 2.5 cm. long: flowers and fruits sessile, or on very short stalks 1 mm. long.

E. medullosum

Male and female inflorescences spikes or narrow panicles; branches simple, to 2.5 cm. long. Flowers and fruits on distinct stalks c. 10 mm. long.

E. malaccense

* Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 14, 395, 1960) considers it highly probable that the correct name for this species is E. diadenum (Miq). Airy Shaw, and I agree with him.

Whitmore Solomon Islands' Plants


On the basis of these differences I propose that provisionally the two species are kept distinct. When more fertile gatherings come to hand from the region of "Wallacea" between western and eastern Malesia it may be found that, as in so many other cases, we have just one widespread variable species.

Collections of E. medullosum, and state of material examined, from Solomons (all BSIP series) :

Shortland Wagina

New Georgia Islands

Santa Ysabel



5744 (fr.)

5470 (very young inflorescence)

Baga 4202 (seedling) Kolomban- gara 1431 (fr.) New Georgia 1978 (fr.) 2543 (fr.)

2724, 2202 (fr.)

1169 (very young inflorescence) 3451 (very young inflorescence)

IV. Guttiferae Calophyllum Linnaeus A. Big Coriaceous Leaves Species C. kajewskii A. C. Smith J. Arn. Arb. 22, 353, 1941. C. solomonense A. C. Smith loc. cit., 346.

We have in the Solomons a big-leafed, big-fruited Calophyllum which is a common tree of lowland rain-forest. This note is to establish its identity and also that of a much less common species.

C. kajewskii is based on Kajewski 2024, a sterile branch with a single detached fruit. Waterhouse 201 is also cited by Smith; the sheet seen was sterile but the description stated 'orang-like fruif. Smith states 'the foliage closely resembles that of C. inophy- llum\ but the species is unique in the region with its extremely large fruit reaching 5-6 cm. diameter.

C. solomonense is based on Kajewski 2469. Brass 3447 was also seen. Like C. kajewskii the foliage 'bears a close resemblance to C. inophyllum, it differs obviously in the greatly contracted inflorescence' (Smith).

The two species are not at all clearly distinguished in Smith's latin descriptions. I have examined all the sheets Smith saw (except Waterhouse 201), kindly lent me at Lae by the Brisbane herbarium and at Cambridge by the Singapore herbarium, and our own extensive collections from the Solomons. I am able to distinguish the species on the following diagnostic characters.

C. kajewskii

Twigs and petioles commonly blue-black, or sometimes golden, glaucous. Leaf blade obovate or ovate, rarely broadly ovate, 4x11 to 9 x 19 cm. (ratio 2.7-2.1), secondary veins coarser than in


Gardens Bulletin, Singapore XX 11 (1967)

C. solomonense, raised on both surfaces (felt by finger tips), 60-80° to midrib. Flowers in racemes to 7 cm. long up to 10 per raceme. Fruit globose 5-6 cm. across at maturity. Very big timber tree with coarsely fissured bark. Kwara'ae name Ba'ula. Common throughout Solomons, also in Bismarcks and with two collections from northwest New Guinea.

C. solomonense

Twigs and petioles always golden. Leaf blade oblong ,7x16 to 8 x 28 cm. (ratio 2.3-3.5). Secondary veins finer than in C. kajewskii, not or scarcely raised on upper surface (not felt by finger tips), slightly raised but not prominent below, 80-90° to midrib. Flowers unknown. Fruits single or paired, on 5 mm. pedicels and a 10 mm. peduncle; only 2 cm. across at maturity. Smaller (our collections and pace Kajewski 2469), and much less common tree than C. kajewskii, with smooth, slightly fissured bark. When bark is cut superficial phellem comes away to reveal red phelloderm and its own inner surface which is yellow (BSIP 2580, 2791); no other Solomons Calophyllum does this. Branches more or less pendent with leaf bases overlapping, like Inocarpus fagiferus, (BSIP 2580). Kwara'ae confused by this tree and call it Gwaragwaro (C. vitiense) or Oleole (C. paludosum).

The leaf differences between these two species are subtle and I am unable to place one sterile collection (BSIP 1940) in one species or the other, and the 20 ft. tall young tree BSIP 1925 from under C. kajewskii BSIP 1921 has very solomonense-like leaves.

In passing I observe that Smith apparently made a mistake when he described C. solomonense. He says that on Brass 3447 'the fruits appear to be solitary in the leaf axils, in the type (Kejewski 2469) . . . (they) are ... on short racemes' whereas in the Brisbane sheets it is the other way round, the fruits are solitary in the type and racemose in the Brass collection.

Collections examined (BSIP series unless otherwise stated) Calophyllum kajewskii


Bougainville Tonelai Hbr. NGF 13029 Buin Kajewksi 2024 type. Mono 4178 Choiseul 5268a Rob Roy 5363

New Georgia Islands Baga 1290, 1321, 3065, 4207 Gizo 5610 Kolombangara 818, 1407, 4092 Rendova 1899, 1921, 1925 New Georgia 1941, 3111 Gatukai 318, 1248b.

Santa Ysabel 2722, 2738, Brass 3447

Guadalcanal 2790

Malaita 3415, 3846

San Cristobal 4213, 4345

Whitmore Solomon Islands Plants


BISMARCKS New Britain NGF 24, 1827, 7007, 10914, 10922, 17048 New Ireland NGF 12352 Umbo NGF 9623

NEW GUINEA NW. Hollandia Res. Tarn. BW 764, 1641

Calophyllum solomonense

SOLOMONS Santa Ysabel 2580, Brass 3447

Guadalcanal 2794, 3317, Kajewski 2469 type

C. kajewskii or solomonense New Georgia 1940

It remains to demonstrate that these recently described Solomons' species are distinct from the earlier described big- leafed Calophyllums of the Bismarks and New Guinea. None of the latter is known at all well. Each was described from only a few collections and in some cases flowers or fruits or both were not known. Recent collections at Lae are sterile. Nevertheless there are distinctive features for each specis, which I enumerate below and which enable me to place the collections at Lae with some confidence and to consider them different from C. kajewskii and C. solomonense, as well as from each other.

C. peekelii Lauterbach, Bot. Jahrb. 58, 11, 1923.

Cited specimens: BISMARCKS: New Ireland: Namatanau Peekel 132, fruits (but lost); Namarodu, Peekel 781, flowers. NEW GUINEA: Kei Islands: Warburg 20041, sterile.

To these I add: BISMARCKS: Admiralty Islands: Los Negros Isl. NGF 536, sterile; St. Matthias Group, Mussau Isl. W 293 (A. C. Richardson), sterile.

The fruit shape and size are only known from Peekel's manu- script flora of the Bismarcks p. 1233.

Diagnostic characters. Leaf blade 32 x 11 cm.; flowers big, 2 cm. across; fruit big, oval almost round, 3.6x4.7 to 4.7x5.7 cm. (once 8.5 x7.0 cm.).

Two sterile collections from the Papua Gulf, Kikori R. NGF 4551, and Oriomo R. NGF 10410, are of very similar leaf and provisionally can go here too, although fertile collections are of course essential for final judgement, as is true also of the Kei Islands collections (above). The field description of NGF 10410 says 'fruit axillary, globular, somewhat pointed at apex 3 in. diam' and this is strong circumstantial evidence that the species is C. peekelii as such big fruits are unique. Both collections are of a swamp tree with stilt roots. Mr. Womersley tells me this species is locally common.


Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore XX 11 (1967)

C. macrophyllum Scheffer Nat. Tijd. NX 32 (2) 405, 1873.

Lauterbach (loc. cit.) says this is probably identical with C. peekelii. I have seen the type at Leiden (Teysmann, s.n., Herb. Bog. 7574, Isl. Gebeh), a single huge lanceolate leaf 45 x 10 cm. quite unlike that of any other Calophyllum I have ever seen, and certainly difffferent from C. peekelii.

C. euryphyllum Lauterbach, loc. cit. 14

Cited specimens. NEW GUINEA: Sepik River at Lagerberg. Hollrung 761, sterile.

To this I add NEW GUINEA: Sterile: Sepik River nr. Yellow River NGF 3920; Sekoli nr. Hollandia BW 8141; Oregon Trail BW 12032; Meos Waar Isl. 1255; nr. Manokwari BW 4352. Flowering: Hollandia BW 4797. Fruiting: Hollandia BW 4827. MOLUCCAS: Sterile: Morotai, Tobelo, Totodokoe bb. 33.771.

Diagnostic characters. Leaf blade broadly ovate, 8x11 to 10 x 16 cm., rounded at base and apex; secondary veins almost invisible on upper surface, faint and rounded not angular on lower surface. Flowers (in bud) 1-3-4, in 5 cm. racemes, clustered in 2-3 s in leaf axils; pedicel 1 cm. Fruits globular 28 mm. across. A species of northern New Guinea;

C. sil Lauterbach loc. cit. 14

Cited specimen. NEW GUINEA SW: South coast by Gelieb village: Branderhorst 179 fruits, TYPE. No material seen.

Diagnostic characters. Leaf blade obovate, 3.5 x 7 to 5 x 10 cm. Few flowered 5 cm. inflorescence. Fruit spherical 10—12 mm., unripe.

B. Other Species

1. C. vitiense Turrill J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 43, 17, 1915.

A big timber tree described from Fiji which reaches its northern limit in the Solomons. This species is characterised by its long, slender, blue-black petiole, lanceolate leaf, racemose inflorescence, usually with peduncle to 5 cm. and pedicels 2 cm., and ellipsoidal seed 2.5 cm. long.

Collections seen:

SOLOMONS (BSIP series unless stated otherwise)

Bougainville NGF 2873, Kajewski 2020 Choiseul 5271

New Georgia Islands Baga 1377, 2812 Kolombangara 836. 1410, 2099 Rendova 1880 1911 New Georgia 1977, 2154 Vangunu 429, 899, 967, 1260 Gatukai 1249

Santa Ysabel 2186, 2420

Guadalcanal 648. 1120, 1123, Kajewski 2657

Whit more Solomon Islands' Plants 13

SANTA CRUZ Tevai 1570 Vanikoro 1596, 1706

2. C. cerasiferum, C. paludosum, C. soulattri.

These are the small-tree Calophyllums of the Solomons. They seldom attain 5 ft. girth and are usually only 2-3 ft. They are more easily distinguished in forest than herbarium and some collections I cannot place. In the forest the Kwara'ae can uncan- nily tell Kaumanu (C. cerasiferum) from Oleole (the others) although the species often grow together. I have not been able fully to analyse the bole and bark characters they use.

All three species have small, usually umbellate, inflorescences, often much reduced in the first two; flower buds are tiny (2-3 mm.), and peduncles slender; fruits are small, globose to subellip- soidal, and do not exceed 15 mm. long. The leaves are chartaceous and the secondary veins close.

The species have a wide habitat range from the lowlands to mountain ridges, and from swamps to dry land. I am unable to correlate this physiological diversity with morphological variation. C. kajewskii has a similar range and is equally indivisible; physio- logical evolution has not yet been matched by morphological.

C. cerasiferum Vesque Epharmosis 2, 10, 1889.

Diagnostic characters. Bole with flying buttresses; exudate from cut bark clear golden yellow (except BSIP 2388 opaque white). Leaves small, ovate-elliptic, 5 x 2.5 to 10x4 cm. (ratio 2 to 2.5) with midrib slightly raised and broadly channelled on upper surface and rather clearly cut raised veins prominent on both surfaces, distant, 25-30 per cm. Sometimes in high mountains. Kwara'ae name: Kaumanu.

The Solomons' collections are a reasonable match for C. cerasiferum of Fiji in leaf shape, size and details of venation. The type, Seemann 49, (isotpye at K! ) has most but not all the midribs raised and channelled above. In both Fijian and Solomons' material the inflorescence may be a short raceme with the flowers clustered at two points along the main axis (Vaisewa 18, BSIP 1497). The vernacular name in Fiji is Damanu, cognate with the Kwara'ae name*.

Closely related to C. congestiflorum A. C. Smith and C. pauciflorum A. C. Smith of highland New Guinea which, however, have consistently smaller and rounder leaves with the midrib above always sunken rather than raised on the upper surface, and the secondary veins more distant and less clear-cut.

*Dr. B. C. Stone tells me this name and cognate versions are wide spread through the Pacific for Calophyllum species, e.g. Kamani Kamanu •(Haiwaii), Tamanu (Samoa, Tahiti).


Gardens Bulletin, Singapore XXI/ (1967)

Collections seen, and habitat


Choiseul 5278 (ridgetop 50 ft.) 5399 (hillside 100 ft) New Georgia Islands Kolombangara 852 (lowland), 2100 (ridge- top 2700 ft.), New Georgia 2013 (swamp), Vangunu 1207 (crater rim 2400 ft.)

Santa Ysabel 2388 (summit ridge, Mt. Sasari 3600 ft.) Malaita 70 (littoral swamp)

FIJI Seemann 49 (type), Home 732 Vaiwesa 18, Bola 11.

In addition the following collections appear intermediate with C.


New Georgia Islands Baga 2837 (lowland), 2912 (valley bottom, lowland).

Malaita 70 (littoral swamp-forest), 3458 (periodically flooded lowland).

C. paludosum C. T. White J. Arn. Arb. 31, 98-9, 1950.

Diagnostic characters. Buttresses absent. Exudate from cut bark opaque cream-yellow (except NGF 12351 -clear). Leaves ovate- lanceolate 7x2 to 10x3 cm. (ratio 3.5 to 3.3), veins clear-cut, visible on both surfaces close, c. 40 per cm. (50 on BSIP 316), drying brown. Kwara'ae names: Oleole (Kwai dialect) Kaumanu- bala (Auki dialect). Distinguished in herbarium from C. cerasiferum with difficulty, the leaves are on the whole narrower, the veins closer, less clearly cut and less prominent; and it has not yet been found in high mountains.

Clearly distinct {pace C. T. White) from C. pulcherrimum Wall., the sheets of which at Singapore (labelled by Henderson & Wyatt Smith, see Gard. Bull. Sing., 15, 1956), all hove smaller, more ovate leaves with more distant veins, much more delicate twigs and long racemose inflorescences with bigger flowers, (isotype, Cuming 1077, ! at K).

C. neo-ebudicum Guill. is also well distinguished by its open racemose inflorescences 6 cm. long and big flowers 10 mm. across, although in leaf it is identical, (isotype, Kajewski 705,! at K). Kajewski 642 from Santa Cruz Islands, Vanikoro has a small raceme 3 cm. long, and flower buds of intermediate size: in morphology as in locality it is intermediate.

Collections seen, and habitat:


Mussau A. C. Richardson W 294 (over coral-limstone) New Ireland NGF 12351 (well drained ground, sea-level).


Shortland 5746 (hillside 100 ft.)

Whitmore Solomon Islands' Plants


Choiseul 5278 (ridgetop 50 ft.) Rob Roy 5340 (ridgetop 100 ft.)

New Georgia Islands Baga 1330 (lowland ridgetop) Kolomban- gara 1497 (ridgetop 700 ft.) 2101 (ridgetop 2700 ft.) New Georgia 192 (swamp) 4759 (hillside 240 ft.) Vangunu 944 (ridgetop) Gatukai 316 (coastal swamp)

Santa Ysabel 2769 (ultrabasic ridge)

Malaita 3469 (ridge 400 ft.), 3549 (lowland hillside)

San Cristobal 4373 (narrow rocky ridge 1500 ft)

C. soulattri Burm. Fl. Ind. 2, 121, 1768; Henderson & Wyatt- Smith Gard. Bull, Sing., 25, 319, 1956.

C. kiong Lauterbach et Schumann. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Siidsee 450, 1901; Ltb. Bot. Jahrb. 58, 11, 1923.

Mr. J. S. Womersley has long suspected that C. kiong is the same as C. soulattri. C. kiong was described from collections made on Sattelberg 20-30 miles north east of Lae. The locus has un- fortunately not been revisited despite its relative accessibility, but there is a common Calophyllum around the Huon gulf, well represented in Lae herbarium. It is common in the foothills of the ranges immediately to the north of Lae which adjoin Sattel- berg. It fits the description of C. kiong, and matches one of our Solomons' species, notably in leaf shape, size and venation and the umbelliform inflorescences. 1 have examined the sheets at Singapore determined as C. soulattri by Henderson and Wyatt- Smith and find them a good match with the species round Lae; inter alia umbelliform inflorescences are uncommon in Calophy- llum. The main difference is that the New Guinea-Solomons' collections sometimes have smaller leaves; this cannot, I consider, be maintained as a specific difference, especially as there is a continuous range of variation in leaf size. I therefore propose to reduce C. kiong to synonymy with C. soulattri.

Diagnostic characters. Buttresses absent. Exudate from cut bark, opaque, cream-yellow. Big ovate-oblong leaf blade, broadest near base, 9x4 to 20 x 7 cm. or rarely 28 x 9 cm. (ratio 2.25- 2.7-3.1); drying grey-green; veins faint, very close together, c. 50 (40) per cm. Kwara'ae names; Oleole (Kwai dialect), Kaumanuhala (Auki dialect). Sometimes conf usable with C. paludosum; distinct in the bigger leaves with closer, fainter veins, drying pale grey- green rather than brown.

Collections seen, and habitat:


Tami R; BW 2712 Mt. Krabo; BW 10752


Gardens Bulletin, Singapore XXI I (1967}


Lae environs NGF 3293 (coastal), 11919 (Atzera Range).

Bulolo (30CM00 ft.) NGF 7543, 10144, 12239, 17025 Womersley s.n., 5/6/61.

Wau NGF 1463 (ridge 3,500 ft.)


Oriomo R. NGF 2723, 13196.

Sogeri Plateau (2,000 ft.) Schodde 3131, NGF 2829.

SOLOMONS (BSIP series unless indicated).

Choiseul 3959 (ridge 200 ft.), 5399 (hillside 100 ft.).

New Georgia Islands Baga 1360 (swamp) Gizo 5602 (ridge 200 ft.) Kolombangara 817 (lowland plain) 1485 (ridge 100 ft.) Rendova 1856, 1857 (ridge 300 ft.) 1912 (ridge 150 ft.) New Georgia 2041 (riverbank) 2520, 2521, 2523, 2524 (ridge 600- 750 ft.), Waterhouse 309 (damp country).

Santa Ysabel 2703 (ridge).

Guadalcanal 3388 (ridge 200 ft.), 3833 (low ridge).

3. Calophyllum sp. BSIP 424, from New Georgia Islands, Vangunu. A small tree of lowland forest, unique and distinctive in its tiny lanceolate leaves only 3 cm. long. I demur from describing it as a new species with only one collection and the flowers unknown. [But see the following paragraph which was added in proof.]

IV Guttiferae, Calophyllum sp. BSIP 424

The note that this represents a new species was based on the BSIP sheet. In sorting through the set now deposited at SING I have just noticed that the sheet there of BSIP 424 has much bigger leaves. In fact the collection is none other than Calophyllum cerasiferum.

V. Myrtaceae

New combinations in Eugenia

L take the broad view shared by many other botanists that Syzygium is not generically distinct from Eugenia and make the following transfers.

Eugenia cincta (Merr. et Perry) Whitmore comb. nov. Type: Brass 3344.

Syzygium cinctum (Merr. et Perry)

J. Arn. Arb. 23, 272, 1942. basionym.

Eugenia myriadena (Merr. et Perry) Whitmore comb. nov.

Type: Kajewski 2713. Syzygium myriadenum Merr. et Perry

J. Arn. Arb. 23, 293, 1942, basionym.

Whit more Solomon Islands' Plants


Eugenia onesima (Merr. et Perry) Whitmore comb. nov.

Type: Kajewski 2043. Syzygium onesimum Merr. et Perry

J. Arn. Arb. 23, 296, 1942, basionym.

VI. Sapindaceae

A. Pometia J. et G. Forster

The abundant collections we now have of this common Solomons' timber tree fully support Jacobs' contention (Rein- ward tia 6, 140, 1962) that in the Solomons Pometia is taxonomi- cally homogeneous. The fertile and some sterile collections all run down in his key to forma pinnata. Some sterile collections have a glabrous midrib above and cannot be keyed out, namely BSIP 5913, 5916, 5918.

The New Guinea foresters, notwithstanding Jacobs' treatment, still find it useful to distinguish three species of Pometia (see van Royen, 1964, 'Manual of the Forest Trees of Papua & New Guinea' 2, 35-42) which they distinguish on a number of morphological characters and which differ in their ecology and bole form (hence commercial value).

On their criteria all the Solomons' collections are P. pinnata Forst. except one BSIP 2694, from Santa Ysabel, Tatamba, which is P. tomentosa T. et B.

I propose that in the Solomons we follow the New Guinea foresters for this genus, which contains one of our most important timber species. The group seems comparable to the Buchanania arborescens group, a widespread polymorphic species with various- ly distinct local forms; rather than to the ochlospecies Schizomeria serrata, which cannot be taxonomically subdivided.

Collections examined (all BSIP series). SOLOMONS

Shortland 5913, 5914, 5915,' 5916, 5918, 5920, 5924, 5925, 5927, 5928.

New Georgia Islands Baga 2882, Gizo 5608, Kolombangara 804,

1483. Choiseul 5667. Rob Roy 5416. Santa Ysabel 2694, 3626. Guadalcanal 1073, 2775. Malaita 3456. San Cristobal 4260, 4324.


Vanikoro 1722 (with edible fruit but forma pinnata nevertheless) . B. Tristiropsis Radlkofer

Tristiropsis acutangula Radlk. Sitz. Ber. K. (Bayer.) Ak. Wiss. M.-Ph. Kl. (CI.) Munch. 20, 248, 1890; listed also in Durand. Ind. Gen. 1887.


Gardens' Bulletin, Singapore X X 1 1 {1967)

T. obtusangula Radlk. loc cit.

T. dentata Radlk. Denkschr. K. Ak. Wiss. M.-N. Kl. Wien 89 572, 1913.

This note is prepared after consultation with Dr. Leenhouts who is revising the whole family Sapindaceae, and is published now to provide a sound name for an important Solomons' species.

The nine or so species described in this genus are very difficult to tell apart and have very slight differences. From the Solomons are T. acutangula Radlk. based on a fruiting collection, Guppy 272, from Oima (should be Oema) in the Shortland Islands; and T. dentata Radlk. based on two sterile collections, one a juvenile, from Popoco, a small island and village in Kieta Bay, Bougainville, about fifty miles north of Oema.

We have found a Tristiropsis which is a common tree of the coral-strand on Baga (BSIP 4211, 4417), where considerable numbers have been felled for timber, on Kolombangara in the New Georgia Islands, and as a relict tree on the coastal coral of north central Guadalcanal within Honiara town (BSIP 4421). The species has a patchy distribution, we have not seen the species anywhere else despite the abundant and highly distinctive seedlings which make it easy to spot and we know for certain that it does not grow in northern Malaita where no one has seen it and there is no local name for it; tree climber Susui went to Malaita and round the villages to check this for me.

My collections are a good match for Guppy's from Oema (type at Kew ! ) and can be referred to T. acutangula.

Two other species have been described from the Pacific. T. obtusangula from the Marianas, differing in the obtuse rather than acute-angled fruits and T. dentata from Bougainville differing in having toothed leaflets. Dr. Leenhouts and I examined at Leiden (on loan from Paris) the type of the former. It is a good match on leaf with my collections and has two rlattish detached fruits which appear simply to be young, not yet fully developed. T. dentata is almost certainly merely a juvenile plant, for the seed-